Biomechanical evaluation of three fixation methods in a feline transverse patella fracture model

Min-Yeong Lee, Tae-Hwan Ahn, Sung-Il Son, Hwi-Yool Kim
J Feline Med Surg. 2023 May;25(5):1098612X231172630.

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the biomechanical properties of three stabilisation techniques in feline patella transverse fractures and select the strongest method with potentially minimal complications.

Methods: Patella fracture was simulated in 27 feline cadaveric pelvic limbs (mean weight of the cadavers 3.78 kg), and the limbs were randomly grouped to be stabilised with one of the three stabilisation methods. The modified tension band wiring technique with a single Kirschner wire (0.9 mm) and figure-of-eight wiring (20 G) was applied to group 1 (n = 9). Group 2 (n = 9) was stabilised with a combination of circumferential and figure-of-eight wiring techniques with orthopaedic wire (20 G). Group 3 (n = 9) was stabilised with the same technique as group 2, but with #2 FiberWire. The knee joints were positioned and fixed in the neutral standing angle (135°) and tested by applying tensile force. The loads at gap formations of 1, 2 and 3 mm were recorded, and the maximum failure load was measured in each group.

Results: In all the loads at displacement (1, 2 and 3 mm), group 3 was significantly stronger than groups 1 and 2, respectively (P <0.017). Group 3 (261.0 ± 52.8 N) showed significantly stronger fixation in the maximum load compared with group 1 (172.9 ± 45.6 N) (P <0.017). No significant difference was observed between groups 1 and 2 (204.9 ± 68.4 N) or between groups 2 and 3.

Conclusions and relevance: This study shows that the combination of circumferential and figure-of-eight techniques with FiberWire is more resistant to displacement than metal wire in this ex vivo feline patella fracture model.