Diagnostic Analgesia

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to quantify by accelerometry the trotting pattern of adult horses sedated with two different doses of acepromazine, in order to assess the use of this drug in equine lameness evaluations.

This study aimed to quantify the compensatory response to naturally-occurring forelimb lameness on load redistribution. Data from lameness investigations using an inertial sensor based system to monitor the response to forelimb diagnostic anaesthesia were reviewed. Horses with primary forelimb lameness were grouped for analysis as (1) all horses combined (n= 28), (2) forelimb-only lameness (n= 8/28), (3) forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness (n= 14/28), (4) forelimb-ipsilateral hindlimb lameness (n= 6/28).

Previous descriptions of the clinical features of navicular disease occurred before the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed a more definitive diagnosis of foot pain. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features of horses with lesions of the podotrochlear apparatus with those with other causes of foot pain. It was hypothesised that primary navicular bone disease would be associated with more advanced radiological findings than other diagnoses.

Authors: T. Pfau, C. Spicer-Jenkins, R. K. Smith, D. M. Bolt, A. Fiske-Jackson and T. H. Witte
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Subjective evaluation of the response to diagnostic analgesia of hindlimb lameness is influenced by expectation bias. Quantification of pelvic movement with inertial measurement units is possible, but it is unclear which measure of movement symmetry best reflects the changes seen after diagnostic analgesia.

Authors: G. Hinnigan, P. Milner, A. Talbot, E. Singer
Journal: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)

Objectives: To investigate the specificity of anaesthesia of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve (DB-LPN). Methods: Twenty horses had DB-LPN anaesthesia performed by a single injection technique as part of a lameness investigation. The mechanical nociceptive threshold (NT) was measured using a handheld force meter at six points on the lateral aspect of the limb: before diagnostic anaesthesia (T0), and at 15 (T15) and 30 (T30) minutes post anaesthesia. Paired t-tests were performed and significance was set at p <0.05.

Authors: Porrakote K. Rungsri, Wolfgang Staecker, Pitiporn Leelamankong, Roberto J. Estrada, Thorben Schulze, Christoph J. Lischer
Journal: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

Diagnostic analgesia of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint is theoretically helpful to localize the source of pain in the foot to the joint and/or navicular bursa. However, it has been suggested that potential diffusion of local anesthetic agent to nearby distal limb nerves may anesthetize other areas of the foot. The objective of this study was to compare the results of palmar digital (PD) and abaxial sesamoid (AS) nerve blocks to intra-articular anesthesia of the DIP joint in horses with distal forelimb lameness.

Authors: Christine P. Schneider, Akikazu Ishihara, Todd P. Adams, Lisa J. Zekas, Michael Oglesbee, Alicia L. Bertone
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To determine analgesic effects of intraneural injection of ethyl alcohol or formaldehyde in the palmar digital nerves of horses.

Animals—6 horses.

Authors: R. Cole, J. Schumacher, R. Wilhite, J. Newton and J. Schumacher
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education


Authors: Ferenc Tóth, DVM, PhD; Jim Schumacher, DVM, MS; Michael C. Schramme, DVM, PhD; Silke Hecht, Dr med vet
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To evaluate the effects of sequential anesthesia of the individual compartments of the equine stifle joint on lameness induced by intra-articular deposition of interleukin (IL)-1β.

Animals—6 horses.

Authors: S. Maliye, L. Voute, D. Lund and J. F. Marshall
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study

In order for changes in lameness to be accurately and repeatably detected and recorded during diagnostic investigations, an objective measure of lameness is required.

To ascertain whether an inertial sensor-based system can distinguish between a positive and negative response to diagnostic anaesthesia of the foot and objectively assess the effect of a positive response on the trot.
Study design

Restrospective clinical study.